Arıboğan was born in 1965 in Istanbul. She graduated from TED Ankara Private High School and later on from Ankara University, Faculty of Political Sciences, Department of International Relations. She received her master’s and doctoral degrees in Istanbul University and completed her studies on International Security Studies of St. Andrews University in Scotland in 1995. She received her associate professorship in 1998 and became professor in 2003.

After she started her academic career in Istanbul University, she continued her career in Istanbul Bilgi University and Bahçeşehir University. She was the president of Bahçeşehir University between 2007 and 2010. She became a member of Bilgi University’s Board of Overseers in July 2010. She is a member of the 'Global Issues Platform' advisory board and continues her academic work.
Concurrently, Arıboğan is a member of “World Academy of Arts and Sciences” established by Albert Einstein.